Today democracy is one of the most popular idea in the world. Many theoreticians, researchers, practitioners claim that there is no other concept that has changed the functioning of contemporary countries to a such extent as the democracy has. 

The main aim of this course is to examine the use and the role of direct democratic forms in Eastern and Western European countries in comparative perspective. The course will deal with theory and practice of direct democracy in European states, as well as the normative dimensions of the processes of referendum, initiative. The main goal is not only to understand and explain how these direct forms work, but also to answer the question about the possibilities and perspectives of using them in present-day Europe, and what follows – also in the European integration process.